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Pipe Abandonment

By applying unique solutions to increase the safety and longevity of our environment.

Tunnel Adit Fill

The Job

This tunnel adit fill project is part of the Purple Line project outside of Washington, DC. Specifically, the adit is located at the pedestrian connection between the Purple Line project and WMATA’s Bethesda station on the Red Line.

The Challenge

Plans call to connect the Purple Line to the Red Line using an adit constructed during the original construction of the Red Line. The adit is approximately 30 feet wide by a 35 foot tall arch. During preparation to blast from a shaft dropped adjacent to the station, a fault was identified passing through the adit.

The construction and design teams were concerned about stability of the adit during blasting operations as the Purple Line access tunnel was excavated towards it. The team determined that filling the adit to plug and stabilize it during blasting would be the most risk appropriate move.

Filling the adit would fulfill the design challenge of stabilizing the rock during blasting. However, it created the following challenges:

  • the tunnel adit fill material would need to be removed after blasting was completed
  • the adit is approximately 100 feet below grade
  • there is very limited space up top
  • material couldn’t segregate, and had to be pumped approximately 250 feet in addition to the 100 foot drop

The Solution

The tunnel engineer of record recommended CJGeo to the contractor. The EOR is familiar with CJGeo’s cellular concrete generation and placement expertise, and thought that cellular concrete would be the lowest risk way to fill the adit, while facilitating excavation and removal afterwards.

CJGeo took five days onsite to fill the adit, in lifts up to eight vertical feet. Due to the potential dead load from the rock cover, 400psi CJFill-Standard was the material of choice. By using our colloidal mixing dry batch process, the material set off quickly, ensuring that it would not consolidate during cure as lower energy mixing methods can suffer from.

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North Carolina Abandonment Grouting

The Job

This North Carolina pipe abandonment project is located in Raleigh, North Carolina. It is part of the Upper Walnut Creek sewer replacement. After installation of a new gravity sewer, more than three miles of 42″ sewer was requiring abandonment grouting. The specification calls for completely filling the pipe with controlled low strength material (flowable fill).

The Challenge

The primary challenge for the general contractor on this project was minimizing cost and time. The owner’s specification calls for an NCDOT-approved flowable fill material. Most flowable fills can only be placed for up to a few hundred feet before requiring another access point. The contractor wanted to minimize the number of placement points to ensure the fastest placement possible.

The Solution

CJGeo designed a grouting program using one of our NCDOT-approved mixes. Using dry batch generation, CJGeo can make up to 200 cubic yards per hour of material, which is enough to fill 562 feet of 42″ pipe per hour.

CJGeo mobilized a dry batch cellular grout plant to the site, and made a total of 5,539 CY of cellular concrete to complete this North Carolina abandonment grouting project over a few weeks. Some of the pipe was completely full of water. Even though cellular grout is significantly lighter than water, it can still displace water out of pipes.

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Facing a similar challenge to this North Carolina abandonment grouting project? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

Virginia Pipe Abandonment

The Job

This Virginia pipe abandonment project is located in Norfolk, Virginia. It is part of the HRSD’s capital improvement program. After installation of a new gravity sewer, 875 linear feet of 24 inch sewer required grout filling for abandonment.

The Challenge

The primary challenge for the general contractor on this project was avoiding installing placement points every 150 feet to use traditional flowable fill. The owner’s specification if using traditional flowable fill requires placement points every 150 feet. The owner allows other controlled low strength materials to be pumped further, as long as uniform material vents at the far end of each placement.

The Solution

CJGeo proposed using 30lb/cuft CJFill-Ultra Lightweight cellular concrete. CJFill-Ultra Lightweight is pumpable thousands of feet per placement. This eliminates the need for most intermediate access points.

CJGeo mobilized a wet batch cellular grout plant to the site, and made 101 CY of cellular concrete grout to complete this Virginia pipe abandonment project in a few hours. The pipe was completely full of water. Even though cellular grout is significantly lighter than water, it can still displace water out of pipes.

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Facing a similar challenge to this Virginia pipe abandonment project? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

Michigan Pipe Abandonment

The Job

This Michigan pipe abandonment project is located in Grand Rapids, Michigan. As part of the Coldbrook Pumping Station decommissioning project, 2250LF of 48″ pipe, and 2300LF of 60″ pipe were specified for grout filling.

The Challenge

The primary challenge for the general contractor on this project was the sheer volume of abandonment grouting. The project also had a significant amount of smaller diameter pipe, but it was in shorter runs, so was easy for them to self-perform with flowable fill.

The Solution

CJGeo proposed using 25lb/cuft CJFill-Ultra Lightweight cellular concrete. CJFill-Ultra Lightweight can be pumped thousands of feet per placement. This eliminates the need for most intermediate access points. Placement points on this project were in the driveway of a fire station, next to a new riverwalk project, and also on the grounds of the pumping station.

CJGeo mobilized a dry batch cellular grout plant to the site, and made around 200 cubic yards per hour of CJFill-Ultra Lightweight to finish this Michigan pipe abandonment project. Each run was up to 2500 feet long at a time. The abandonment work took five days onsite. By utilizing on site dry batching, a snow storm and cold overnight temperatures did not affect the work.

After the crew was completed with this work, they moved to Detroit to perform annular space grouting on a 17′ diameter CSO outfall structure.

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Facing a similar challenge? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

New Jersey Pipe Abandonment

The Job

This New Jersey pipe abandonment project is located in northern New Jersey. First, the general contractor installed a new force main by micro tunneling. After the the new micro tunneled force main was in service, the existing force main had to have grout filling. The pipe is 24″, and about 6300 feet long.

The Challenge

The pipes ran underneath an existing roadway, so digging access points for flowable fill installation would have been expensive, time consuming, and disruptive to traffic. The general contractor recommended CJFill Low Density Controlled Low Strength Material (LD-CLSM) as an alternative to the controlled low strength material that the township typically uses.

In addition to the old force main abandonment, a wet well structure also required abandonment. The original plan was to use flowable fill, however there were concerns about inducing settlement if the fill material was heavy.

The Solution

CJGeo proposed using 25lb/cuft CJFill-Ultra Lightweight cellular concrete. CJFill-Ultra Lightweight can be pumped thousands of feet per placement. This eliminates the need for most intermediate access points.

CJGeo mobilized a dry batch cellular grout plant to the site, and made around 150 cubic yards per hour of CJFill-Ultra Lightweight to finish this New Jersey pipe abandonment project. Each run was up to 2500 feet long at a time. The abandonment work took two days onsite. After the abandonment grouting was done, the CJGeo crew did the wet well abandoning work with 25lb/cuft CJFill-Ultra Lightweight.

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Facing a similar challenge? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

Pennsylvania Pipe Abandonment

The Job

This Pennsylvania pipe abandonment project is located at a drinking water reservoir near York, Pennsylvania. As part of a dam reconstruction, the existing outfall pipe was specified for grouted abandonment.

The Challenge

The existing outfall pipe is 48″ cast iron pipe, and approximately 200 feet long. The pipe passes approximately 45 feet below the crest of the earthen embankment, concrete core dam structure. To ensure that the pipe would not serve as a conduit for water after abandonment, the specification calls for cellular grout with a maximum permeability of 1×10-6 centimeters per second.

During design, there were concerns about leaks in the pipe draining out some of the cellular concrete after placement stopped, but before it reached initial set. To address this, a secondary grouting program using chemical grout was designed to top off any void volume in the outfall pipe after the cellular grout set.

The Solution

CJGeo proposed using 60lb/cuft CJFill-Standard cellular grout for the abandonment. 60lb/cuft CJFill-ST exceeds the minimum compressive strength requirement, and has less than 1×10-6 cm/sec permeability.

CJGeo mobilized a dry batch cellular grout plant to the site to complete this Pennsylvania pipe abandonment project. The crew performed the grouting in fewer than two hours. The dry batch plant generates the 60lb/cuft cellular grout onsite directly from bulk cement powder.

Placement was through sacrificial grout pipes installed by the general contractor. The GC also constructed masonry bulkheads on both ends of the structure.

Exploratory holes drilled in the bulkheads the following day confirmed uniform fill, and no need for the secondary grouting work.

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Facing a similar challenge? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

Coke Gas Pipe Fill

The Job

This coke gas pipe fill project is located in Middletown, Ohio, at Cleveland Cliff’s Middletown Works facility. Middletown Works determined that the coke plant would be more costly to repair than to replace, so elected to demolish the plant.

The Challenge

A demolition contractor working to dismantle parts of the onsite coking plant had to remove approximately 350LF of coke gas pipe. The work area is located in the basement of the coking plant.

Coke gas residuals will spontaneously combust when exposed to the air, but the pipe had to be cut into roughly 3′ pieces to remove it. The pipe fill grout had to:

  • completely fill the pipe
  • coat the residuals to minimize air exposure
  • cut easily
  • add as little weight as possible to the pipe sections

The Solution

CJGeo proposed using CJGrout-20SDB to fill the pipes. 20SDB is a 2lb/cuft rigid polyurethane foam, specifically formulated to flow long distances before setting.

CJGrout 20SDB is generated onsite by special polyurethane grouting rigs. The rigs have hoses up to 400 feet long, which convey the material from the grouting rigs to the placement area. For this coke gas pipe fill project, the crew had to run hoses approximately 250 feet into the building, down multiple stair cases. The hoses are lightweight and about 2 inches in diameter, so this isn’t a problem.

One of CJGeo’s polyurethane grouting crews was onsite for two days to complete the project. Once the coke gas pipes were filled, the demolition contractor cut them into 3 foot long pieces with traditional band saws bagged the sections, and removed them from site.

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Facing a similar challenge? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

Michigan Water Main Abandonment

The Job

This Michigan water main abandonment project is located in Saginaw, Michigan. It is a 2900LF of 8″ grouted abandonment for the local municipality.

The Challenge

The utility contractor who installed the replacement water main was required to fill the old pipe with grout after tying in the new pipe. Because of the relatively small diameter, they were going to have to dig approximately 15 access holes if they used traditional flowable fill. The contractor really didn’t want to have to do that. So, they sought a highly mobile grout that would eliminate the need for digging access points.

The Solution

CJGeo proposed using CJFill-Ultra Lightweight cellular grout for this Michigan water main abandonment. Because the project volume is approximately 40 cubic yards. CJGeo proposed using wet batch generation, with a local ready mix provider supplying the raw slurry.

Wet batch generation is well suited for projects like this because the volume of slurry required is much less than a full load of cement. The equipment for wet batch generation is very portable–typically just two pickup trucks, one pulling a 20′ trailer with equipment.

Confirmation of fill for this Michigan water main abandonment project was material venting a fire hydrant at the far end of the placement. Pumping pressures were less than 20psi for the duration of the grouting process.

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Facing a similar challenge? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

BNA Culvert Abandonment

The Job

As part of a Nashville International Airport’s BNA Vision project, several hundred feet of culvert needed to be filled with grout. The culvert abandonment work is part of installing a new drainage system to accommodate a new terminal.

The Challenge

Due to long runs with no intermediate access, the engineer specified cellular concrete as the abandonment grout. Access to the site was across an active taxiway, so the fewest deliveries possible was very important. The minimum design requirements were:

  • 28 day compressive strength minimum = 100psi
  • maximum wet cast density = 35lb/cuft

The Solution

To address the need to limit the number of deliveries, CJGeo performed the culvert abandonment using CJFill-UL . CJFill-UL is batched onsite directly from bulk cement. By using bulk cement onsite, there were no concerns about hot loads of ready mix. A single semi was able to deliver all the raw material for the placement.

Each of the runs on this project is greater than 250LF. By using highly mobile grout, there are no questions about the pipes being completely full. CJFill-UL is so mobile it will flow by gravity up to a few hundred feet. The material is always pumped. This allows for placement from either the high or low end of individual runs. Because the density of the material is very low, it takes very little additional pressure to place from the low end.

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Facing a similar challenge? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

Dumfries Pipe Abandonment

The Job

This utility relocation included abandonment grouting as part of a VDOT roadway reconstruction and realignment of US Route 1 in Dumfries, Virginia. This Dumfries pipe abandonment job is located in a rapidly growing town in Northern Virginia. US Route 1 is a major local traffic corridor, as well as a bailout route for I-95 congestion.

The Challenge

1,575LF of pipe, a combination of 54″ & 60″ needed to be completely filled with grout. Due to sequencing, the pipe was underneath new roadway at the time of abandonment. So, the fewer the number of access points, the better.

The Solution

CJGeo placed 995CY of 25lb/cuft CJFill-Ultra Lightweight cellular grout to completely fill the pipe run. The material was placed in a single day, from a single access point near the center of the pipe run.

To facilitate such a large placement in a single day on this Dumfries pipe abandonment job, CJGeo used dry batch generation. Dry batch generation mixed water with bulk cement onsite, using a mobile batch plant. CJGeo’s mobile batch plants are designed specifically to generate cellular concrete. They generate preformed foam at the same time as making the cement slurry. The preformed foam and cement slurry pass through an in line mixer, at up to 200CY/hour.

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Facing a similar challenge? Give us a shout or shoot us a text. Click the state marker for the location of your project for contact info for the appropriate rep.

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